Introduction and Overview
Commercial solar tax credits refer to government incentives that reduce the cost of installing solar panels for businesses. The Investment Tax Credit (ITC) is the most significant in the U.S., offering businesses a tax credit worth 26% of their solar installation costs if installed before 2022, reducing to 22% in 2023. The credit can be claimed on federal income taxes.
The Importance of Commercial Solar Tax Credits
With environmental concerns creeping up our list of priorities, businesses are starting to feel the pressure to go green. This is where commercial solar tax credits come into play. These incentives give businesses an economic boost to adopt clean energy solutions like solar panels, helping them not only become environmentally responsible, but also significantly deducting their operational costs over time. Talk about a win-win! The long-term savings generated from solar power, coupled with these tax credits, makes going solar an enticing prospect.
Evolution of Solar Tax Credits for Businesses
Since its inception in 2006, Commercial Solar Tax Credits have undergone a number of changes. Originally set at 30%, the ITC offer has been reduced over time to encourage businesses to embrace solar power sooner rather than later. The scheme has been gradually winding down, but even at 22%, businesses get a significant knock-off their taxes.
Understanding the Solar Investment Tax Credit (ITC)
History and Current Schedule of the ITC
The ITC was first introduced in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Since then, it has gone through several extensions, the latest being the Consolidated Appropriations Act 2021. It has catalyzed tremendously the growth of solar energy, increasing solar installations by over 10,000% since its inception in 2006.
Projects Eligible for the ITC
The ITC applies to both residential and commercial installations including solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, solar water heaters and concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. To meet the criteria, the solar equipment must be new and designed to generate electricity using solar energy.
ITC Eligible Expenses
The ITC applies to the total cost of the solar power setup. This includes the cost of equipment, labor for onsite preparation, assembly, installation, and for the staging of the property, along with permitting and inspection costs.
How to Claim the ITC: Process and Requirements
Claiming the ITC involves filling out IRS Form 5695 and including the resulting tax credit value on IRS Form 1040. Businesses planning to claim the ITC are advised to consult with a tax expert to ensure all necessary requirements are met.
Understanding the Production Tax Credit (PTC)
While the ITC is the more popular of the commercial solar incentives, the Production Tax Credit (PTC) also deserves mention. The PTC provides a per-kilowatt-hour (kWh) tax credit for electricity generated by qualified energy sources.
Projects Eligible for the PTC
The PTC primarily benefits large-scale renewable energy projects like wind and geothermal, but certain solar projects like utility-scale solar farms can also qualify.
Differences Between the ITC and PTC
The main difference is the method of calculation. While the ITC provides a credit based on the project’s cost, the PTC is based on the energy produced.
How to Claim the PTC: Process and Requirements
Claiming the PTC requires applying on IRS Form 8835 and Form 3800. The credit lasts for the first 10 years of operation.
Complementary Commercial Solar Incentives
Apart from the federal ITC and PTC, several states and utilities offer additional commercial solar incentives. These include policies like net metering, solar rebate programs, performance-based incentives (PBIs), property tax exemptions, and sales tax exemptions.
State and Utility Solar Incentives and Rebates
Many states and utilities offer incentives and rebates to encourage businesses to install solar panels. The Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) is an excellent resource for knowing the incentives available in your area.
Accelerated and Bonus Depreciation for Commercial Solar
Businesses should also be aware of depreciation benefits. The Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) allows businesses to recover investments in certain properties over specified periods. The IRS allows solar energy equipment to be depreciated over a five-year schedule.
Key Features and Rules of Commercial Solar Tax Credits
There are several important rules and features for businesses to pay close attention to while preparing to claim these tax credits.
Understanding “Commence Construction”
To claim the ITC, businesses need to commence construction before the deadline. This involves either physical work of a significant nature or achieving the ‘5 percent safe harbor’—spending 5% of the total expected installation costs.
Bonus Credits: Domestic Content, Energy Community, Low-Income
Certain businesses can qualify for bonus credits, based on system components manufactured domestically, projects that are part of an energy community, or systems installed in low-income communities.
Labor Requirements for Qualifying Projects
The labor for such solar projects needs to meet certain requirements. For example, some states require using a certain number of locally-licensed electricians or installers.
Unused Tax Credits: Carryback and Carryforward Rules
If a business does not have enough tax liability to claim the entire credit in one year, the IRS allows ‘carryforward’ of the tax credit to the next year. Some businesses may also be able to ‘carryback’ a credit, applying it to the previous year’s tax liability.
Impact of Tax Credits on Business Financing
Understanding how these tax credits impact business financing is crucial in the entire solar power adoption process. Financing agreements can significantly affect ITC calculations.
Financing Means and Their Impact on ITC Calculations
The methods in which a solar project is financed (whether through loans, leases, power purchase agreements) can impact the available commercial solar tax credits. It’s important to structure your financing in a way that will allow you to take full advantage of the tax credits.
Tax Equity Financing
Tax equity financing is a common approach whereby a business partners with an investor who can utilize the tax credits, in exchange for providing capital for the project.
Safe Harbor Clause and Its Significance
The ‘Safe Harbor’ provision allows businesses to qualify for the existing ITC rate if they invest at least 5% of the total installation cost or start physical work before the rate decreases.
Comparison of ITC and PTC
Both the ITC and PTC have their advantages and understanding which one to leverage for your project can help maximize savings.
Comparing Benefits: Wind vs. Solar
While the PTC has mainly been useful for wind projects, the ITC has been more beneficial for solar projects due to the calculation method and the scale at which these projects are typically implemented.
Example Calculations: ITC and PTC with Bonus Depreciation
Let’s say your business spends $500,000 on a new solar installation. At the current 26% rate, the ITC would give you a tax credit of $130,000. Add in the MACRS depreciation of 85% of the remaining system cost ($370,000), taxed at a 21% corporate tax rate, and the first-year deduction could be another $77,700, providing total first-year credits and deductions of $207,700.
With the PTC, the credit would depend on power production. For example’s sake, let’s say your system produces 1,000,000 kWh annually and the PTC rate is $0.015/kWh. That would equate to a $15,000 tax credit each year for the next 10 years.
Changes on Business Solar Tax Credits: With the Inflation Reduction Act
Impact of Inflation Reduction Act on Solar Tax Credits
The Inflation Reduction Act hasn’t significantly impacted the solar ITC and PTC, but it has had an effect on depreciation schedules and other parts of the tax code that can affect your overall tax strategy.
The ITC and PTC Phase Out Timeline
The ITC will drop to 22% in 2023 and phase out in 2024 unless the federal government takes action to extend the deadline.
Assistance for Tax-Exempt Organizations
Benefits from Direct Pay and Transfer of Credit
Tax-exempt organizations can also benefit from commercial solar incentives through direct pay options from the federal government or by transferring their credits to a taxable entity.
Navigating the “Recapture Rules”
Recapture rules stipulate that if a solar system ceases to work as originally intended within five years of installation, previously awarded tax credits must be repaid. This is unlikely but businesses should be aware of this rule.
Exploring Solar Options for Businesses
Choosing the Right Solar Service Provider
Choosing the right solar service provider is critical for a smooth solar transition. The service provider should have a proven track record, relevant credentials, and extensive experience in commercial solar installations which you can learn more on our page discussing solar panels for commercial buildings.
Determining Solar System Size and Output
The size of the solar system needed depends on various factors such as the amount of sunlight available, efficiency of the solar panels and the energy needs of the business. A rule of thumb would be to calculate the annual energy use and divide by the average annual hours of peak sunshine.
Conclusion and Outlook: The Future of Commercial Solar Incentives
Importance of Acting Now: Urgency Due to Potential Changes in Policy
With constant changes in policy and commercial solar tax credits, the best option is to act now. Secure these incentives before they reduce or disappear altogether.
Solar’s Growing Popularity and its implications for Commercial Solar Tax Credits
As the popularity of solar continues to grow, businesses, especially small and medium-sized enterprises, must leverage these commercial solar incentives. Now, more than ever, is the best time for businesses to take advantage of commercial solar tax credits and embark on the journey of renewable energy.